Getting to Know the Top Ten Electronic Components

Resistor Component

The resistor component is an idealized model abstracted from practical resistors, representing the physical phenomenon of energy consumption in a circuit, and is an ideal two-terminal element.

The resistance value of a resistor is fixed, and it can limit the magnitude of the current passing through the branch connected to it. Its magnitude is generally related to temperature, material, length, and cross-sectional area. The physical quantity that measures the influence of temperature on resistance is the temperature coefficient, with units of ppm/°C.

Potentiometer Component

The potentiometer component is a variable resistor, usually composed of a resistive body and a rotating or sliding system, where a movable contact moves on the resistive body to obtain partial voltage output.

The function of a potentiometer is to adjust the magnitude of voltage (including DC voltage and signal voltage) and current. The structural characteristic of a potentiometer is that it has two fixed terminals on the resistive body. By manually adjusting the shaft or slider, the position of the movable contact on the resistive body is changed, thereby changing the resistance value between the movable contact and any fixed terminal, thus changing the magnitude of voltage and current.

Capacitor Component

The capacitor component is a device that can store energy in the form of charge, representing the ideal two-terminal element that stores electrical energy in a circuit.

A capacitor consists of two conductor plates and a dielectric. The dielectric can be air, paper, plastic, ceramic, etc. When a voltage is applied to the capacitor plates, an electric field is formed between the plates, causing the charge to separate on the plates, thereby storing a certain amount of charge in the capacitor. The capacitance of the capacitor depends on the distance between the two plates and the dielectric’s permittivity.

Inductor Component

The inductor component is a device that can store magnetic field energy, representing the ideal two-terminal element that stores magnetic field energy in a circuit.

An inductor consists of a conductor coil and a core. When a current flows through the conductor coil of the inductor, a magnetic field is generated in the core, thereby storing a certain amount of magnetic field energy in the inductor. The size of the inductor depends on factors such as the number of turns, wire diameter, length of the conductor coil, and material and shape of the core.

Diode Component

A diode is a two-terminal device made of semiconductor material with unidirectional conductivity, and it is the simplest power device.

A diode has two electrodes, the positive electrode (anode) and the negative electrode (cathode). When a forward voltage is applied across the two terminals of the diode, the diode conducts; when a reverse voltage is applied, the diode blocks. The conduction and blocking of the diode are equivalent to the closure and opening of a switch.

Transistor Component

A transistor is an electronic device, also known as a bipolar junction transistor or junction transistor.

It is a semiconductor device that amplifies current and is a core component of electronic circuits. The transistor is made by fabricating two closely spaced pn junctions on a semiconductor substrate, dividing the entire semiconductor into three parts: the middle part is the base region, and the two side parts are the emitter region and the collector region, arranged in either pnp or npn configurations.

Tactile Push Button Switch Component

A tactile push button switch is an electronic component used as a short-range switch, commonly used in electronic devices.

Its working principle is to control the switch state of the circuit by pressing the tactile button. When the button is pressed, the circuit closes, allowing current to pass through; when the button is released, the circuit opens, and current cannot pass through.

Micro Switch Component

A micro switch is a short-range switch commonly used in electronic devices.

Its working principle is similar to that of a tactile push button switch. When the button is pressed, the circuit closes, allowing current to pass through; when the button is released, the circuit opens, and current cannot pass through. A micro switch has small contact spacing and a fast action mechanism. It operates with a specified stroke and specified force. It is covered with a casing and has a driving rod on the outside. Because the contact spacing of its switch is relatively small, it is called a micro switch, also known as a sensitive switch.

Temperature Switch Component

A temperature switch is a type of temperature switch that uses bimetallic strips as temperature sensing elements.

When the appliance is operating normally, the bimetallic strip is in a free state, and the contacts are in a closed/open state. When the temperature rises to the action temperature, the bimetallic element heats up and quickly moves, opening/closing the contacts and cutting off/connecting the circuit, thereby providing thermal protection. Temperature switches are widely used in various industrial and process applications. Once the temperature reaches the preset value, the temperature switch will open or close the corresponding switch contacts. Users can choose suitable mechanical or electronic switches according to their needs.

Relay Component

A relay is an electrically controlled device that causes a predetermined step change in the controlled quantity in the electrical output circuit when the change in the input quantity meets the specified requirements.

Relays have control systems and controlled systems and are commonly used in automated control circuits, playing roles such as automatic regulation, safety protection, and circuit switching. Relays consist of coils, magnetic circuits, return springs, and contacts.

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2024-03-26 05:47:31

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